Clonidine emedicine

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    Clonidine emedicine


    Clonidine, sold as the brand name Catapres among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug withdrawal (alcohol, opioids, or smoking), menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions. Clonidine is used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug withdrawal (alcohol, opioids, or smoking), menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions. It can alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms by reducing the sympathetic nervous system response such as tachycardia and hypertension, as well as reducing sweating, hot and cold flashes, and general restlessness. Clonidine also has several off-label uses, and has been prescribed to treat psychiatric disorders including stress, sleep disorders, and hyperarousal caused by post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Clonidine has also been used to treat refractory diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome, fecal incontinence, diabetes, withdrawal-associated diarrhea, intestinal failure, neuroendocrine tumors and cholera. The reduction in circulating norepinephrine by clonidine was used in the past as an investigatory test for phaeochromocytoma, which is a catecholamine-synthesizing tumour, usually found in the adrenal medulla. In a clonidine suppression test plasma catecholamine levels are measured before and 3 hours after a 0.3 mg oral test dose has been given to the patient. buy metformin over the counter While elucidating the amount and timing of the clonidine ingestion is helpful, in practice, signs and symptoms guide therapy. Always suspect other co-ingestants and screen appropriately. Children are particularly susceptible to toxic reaction from small doses (ie, normal adult therapeutic doses) of clonidine. The Catapres TTS patch appears similar to a small Band-Aid or sticker, and a child could pull the patch off a sleeping caretaker. Several case reports document patches detaching spontaneously from a sleeping parent in a bed shared with a child and subsequently adhering to the child with resultant toxicity. In cases of possible clonidine toxicity involving children, always question family, friends, and emergency medical services (EMS) as to whether a child may have had access to clonidine. Three patients who were receiving long-term treatment with intrathecal clonidine experienced a clonidine overdose because of inadvertent extravasation during the refilling procedure. All three patients experienced loss of consciousness and severe systemic hypertension that required aggressive parenteral treatment.

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    Clonidine is a central alpha-agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. Other reported clinical uses include treatment of opiate and. prednisone weight gain 5 days Dec 15, 2017. Clonidine is a central alpha-agonist that is used as an antihypertensive agent. Other reported clinical uses include treatment of opiate and. Objectives We aimed to assess the effects of clonidine on short-term growth rate in. Available from

    At therapeutic doses (0.2-0.9 mg/d), clonidine is commonly associated with adverse effects such as dry mouth, sedation, dizziness, and constipation. While generally safe, at toxic doses clonidine can cause serious cardiopulmonary instability and central nervous system (CNS) depression in children and adults. Clonidine is available in a weekly transdermal patch (Catapres TTS: 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, or 0.3 mg/d, with each patch containing 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 7.5 mg of clonidine, respectively) and in tablet form (Catapres: 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.3 mg; Combipres includes 15 mg of chlorthalidone diuretic). An ophthalmic solution is occasionally used in the treatment of glaucoma. Clonidine is an imidazole derivative and was first used as a nasal decongestant. Decongestants containing tetrahydrozoline, also an imidazole derivative, can result in the same signs and symptoms as clonidine poisoning when ingested, especially in children. Clonidine acts primarily as a presynaptic CNS alpha2-agonist, stimulating receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the medulla oblongata. Provide aggressive supportive care because patients may rapidly decompensate. Address airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs) as usual. Intravenous access with crystalloid and pressor support with dopamine may be necessary. If a clonidine patch is present on the skin, remove it and wash the exposed area. Initiate standard naloxone therapy and blood glucose checks. Clonidine toxicity can cause serious respiratory depression and apnea requiring immediate endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Once the airway is secure, place the patient on continuous ECG, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation monitoring. Consider central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring in patients who are markedly hypotensive. Hypotension is very common with clonidine toxicity; initially treat the patient with aggressive crystalloid infusion.

    Clonidine emedicine

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