JAMAJAMA Network Open JAMA Cardiology JAMA Dermatology JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery JAMA Internal Medicine JAMA Neurology JAMA Oncology JAMA Ophthalmology JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery JAMA Pediatrics JAMA Psychiatry JAMA Surgery Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (1919-1959) e Methodse Table 1. Variables Included in Propensity Score, With Sources of Data and ICD-10 and ATC Codese Table 3. Hazard Ratios With 95% CIs From Full Multivariate Model of All-Cause Mortality Adjusted for Propensity Score From 10 Imputed Datasetse Table 4. All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction and Using Carvedilol or Metoprolol Succinate: Follow-Up Truncated at 1 Yeare Table 5. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Go AS, Yang J, Gurwitz JH, Hsu J, Lane K, Platt R. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Shore S, Aggarwal V, Zolty R. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Meta-analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC). Secondary Outcome of Cardiovascular Mortality Comparing Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction and Using Carvedilol or Metoprolol Succinatee Table 6. Reducing bias in a propensity score matched-pair sample using greedy matching techniques. Primer on statistical interpretation or methods report card on propensity-score matching in the cardiology literature from 2004 to 2006: a systematic review. Comparative effectiveness of different beta-adrenergic antagonists on mortality among adults with heart failure in clinical practice. Carvedilol or sustained-release metoprolol for congestive heart failure: a comparative effectiveness analysis. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Baseline Characteristics of 1:1 Propensity Score-Matched Cohort of Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction Included in Robustness Analysise References MERIT-HF Study Group. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, et al; Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study Group. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Mc Murray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, et al; ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al; Writing Committee Members; American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Arumanayagam M, Chan S, Tong S, Sanderson JE. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Ohlstein EH, Arleth AJ, Storer B, Romanic AM. Pub Med Google Scholar Crossref Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JG, et al; Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial Investigators. 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ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology—developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Antioxidant properties of carvedilol and metoprolol in heart failure: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Carvedilol inhibits endothelin-1 biosynthesis in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells. Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure in the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET): randomised controlled trial. COMET: a proposed mechanism of action to explain the results and concerns about dose. Benefits of β blockers in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: network meta-analysis. Trends in quality of care among patients with incident heart failure in Denmark 2003-2010: a nationwide cohort study. Relationship of beta-blocker dose with outcomes in ambulatory heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction: results from the HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: a Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training) trial. Influence of heart rate, blood pressure, and beta-blocker dose on outcome and the differences in outcome between carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the COMET trial. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Chronic Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Meta-analysis: beta-blocker dose, heart rate reduction, and death in patients with heart failure. 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